Bipolar disorder has been shown to be a complex illness5
- Bipolar depression differs from MDD, namely with regard to presence of manic episodes and symptomatology6
- According to one study, the rate of pediatric hospitalizations with a principal diagnosis of bipolar disorders increased from 3.3 to 5.7/10,000 children from 2000 to 2006.7
- Another study, in patients ages 12-66, showed that a majority of suicide attempts (73%) occur during depressive episodes (16% during mixed episode, 11% during manic episode)8
Historically, many antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics have been studied for bipolar depression as monotherapy9,10
- Few atypical antipsychotics are FDA-approved for the treatment of bipolar depression in children11
- Hirschfeld RM, Lewis L, Vornik LA. Perceptions and impact of bipolar disorder: how far have we really come. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(2):161-174.
- Frye MA, Calabrese JR, Reed ML, Hirschfeld RM. Health care resource utilization in bipolar depression compared with unipolar depression: results of a United States population-based study. CNS Spectr. 2006;11(9):704-710.
- National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/bipolar-disorder/index.shtml. Accessed May 1, 2014.
- National Institute of Mental Health website. Bipolar Disorder. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/bipolar-disorder.shtml. Accessed February 19, 2020.
- Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement in Mental Health (CQAIMH). www.cqaimh.org/stable.html. Accessed May 2, 2014.
- American Psychiatric Association. Bipolar and Related Disorders. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013:123-188.
- Lasky T, Krieger A, Elixhauser A, Vitiello B. Children's hospitalizations with a mood disorder diagnosis in general hospitals in the United States 2000-2006. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2011;7:5-27.
- Tondo L, Baldessarini RJ, Hennen J, Floris G, Silvetti F, Tohen M. Lithium treatment and risk of suicidal behavior in bipolar disorder patients. J Clin Psych. 1998;59(8):405-414.
- Selle V, Schalkwijk S, Vázquez GH, Baldessarini RJ. Treatments for acute bipolar depression: meta-analyses of placebo-controlled, monotherapy trials of anticonvulsants, lithium and antipsychotics. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2014;47(2):43-52.
- Clinical Trials website. www.clinicaltrials.gov. Accessed June 16, 2016.
- PDR.net website. www.pdr.net. Accessed January 14, 2020.